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I Write to Please Myself: The Extraordinary Life and Work of Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle

In the annals of literature and science, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, stands as an enigmatic and remarkable figure. A self-taught philosopher, poet, and dramatist, she defied societal norms and made significant contributions to the intellectual landscape of the 17th century. This comprehensive article delves into the life, writings, and enduring legacy of Margaret Cavendish, shedding light on her groundbreaking work and its impact on subsequent generations.

A Shy, Solitary Woman with a Passion for Knowledge

Born in 1623 or 1624, Margaret Lucas grew up in a noble family in Essex, England. Despite her privileged upbringing, she received little formal education, a common fate for women of her time. However, her inquisitive mind and thirst for knowledge led her to pursue intellectual pursuits on her own. Cavendish’s passion for poetry and scientific inquiry manifested early in her life. She began writing poems and plays as a young woman, and her keen interest in natural philosophy drew her to the study of the physical world.

Philosophical and Scientific Writings

In 1653, Cavendish published her first major work, “Poems, and Fancies,” a collection of poems that explored themes of nature, love, and human existence. This publication marked the beginning of her prolific writing career, which spanned various genres and subjects. Cavendish’s philosophical and scientific writings, in particular, set her apart from her contemporaries. In a series of treatises, including “Philosophical and Physical Opinions” and “Philosophicall Fancies,” she presented her unique perspective on the nature of matter, motion, and consciousness.

Her philosophy was rooted in a belief that matter was composed of two distinct substances: animate and inanimate. Animate matter possessed the ability to move and think, while inanimate matter was inert and passive. This dualistic view of matter allowed Cavendish to explain a wide range of phenomena, from the movement of planets to the workings of the human mind.

A Trailblazing Female Intellectual

In an era when women were largely excluded from the world of academia, Cavendish’s intellectual pursuits were both remarkable and audacious. She challenged prevailing notions of female inferiority and asserted her right to engage in intellectual discourse. Cavendish’s writings were met with mixed reactions. Some praised her originality and enthusiasm, while others dismissed her work as the product of a misguided mind. Nevertheless, her determination and persistence paved the way for future generations of women who sought to pursue intellectual endeavors.

Eccentricity and Controversy

Cavendish’s unconventional lifestyle and eccentric behavior further contributed to her notoriety. She was known for her extravagant dress and her habit of wearing a hat adorned with feathers and ribbons. Her outspokenness and willingness to challenge established norms made her a subject of gossip and ridicule. Despite the controversies surrounding her, Cavendish remained steadfast in her pursuit of knowledge and self-expression. She continued to write and publish her works, leaving behind a substantial body of work that continues to intrigue and inspire readers to this day.

Legacy and Impact

Margaret Cavendish’s contributions to literature and science have been recognized and celebrated in recent decades. Scholars have rediscovered her writings and praised her originality, wit, and philosophical insights. Her work has been hailed as proto-feminist, lesbian, ecofeminist, and asexual, reflecting the diverse interpretations and perspectives that her writing invites. However, it is important to approach her work on its own terms, appreciating its unique qualities and its significance within the context of her time.

Cavendish’s writings offer a glimpse into the intellectual ferment of the 17th century, a period of profound scientific and philosophical change. Her work serves as a reminder of the enduring power of curiosity, creativity, and the pursuit of knowledge, regardless of societal constraints or expectations.


Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, was a visionary thinker, a trailblazing female intellectual, and an eccentric figure who left an indelible mark on the literary and scientific landscape of the 17th century. Her writings continue to resonate with readers today, inspiring and challenging us to think critically about the world around us and to embrace the power of imagination and independent thought.